Comparing Bootstrap With Google’s Material Design Lite : Bootstrap – ResponSive Design

Bootstrap vs Materialize

What is Materialize and Bootstrap?


Both Google’s Materialize and Twitter’s Bootstrap are front end CSS frameworks for webpages. Both are open source. In the question“What is the best CSS framework?” Bootstrap is ranked 1st while Materialize is ranked 5th. The most important reason people chose Bootstrap is:
Bootstrap is developed to be instantly compatible with all sizes of screens, so you don’t have to worry about which device the user is accessing your site from. Yet if you prefer, you can disable responsiveness of Bootstrap.

Bootstrap:

Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end web framework for designing websites and web applications. It contains HTML and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript extensions. Unlike many web frameworks, it concerns itself with front-end development only.


Materialize:

Created and designed by Google, Material Design is a design language that combines the classic principles of successful design along with innovation and technology. Google’s goal is to develop a system of design that allows for a unified user experience across all their products on any platform.


Major Differences!

Philosophy

  • Bootstrap was originally built by Twitter with the purpose of making it easy to build responsive websites. It gives you a lot of components and customization options for making web apps.
  • Material Design Lite is a way for Google to spread its material design concept to the web. It gives you only the base building blocks for building material apps. The rest is up to the developer.

Development Experience

  • Bootstrap has a very detailed documentation. Development involves copy pasting from the examples and getting a usable result fast.
  • MDL is built around BEM, and components are built by combining multiple classes. This approach gives a great deal of control, but can sometimes lead to unwieldy HTML.

Components

  • In Bootstrap, almost all built-in HTML elements are styled and can fit nicely together in a layout. It gives you a great number of additional components for any type of design.
  • MDL gives you fewer components than Bootstrap, but they are all focused on building modern Material Design applications. They come with animations and beautiful default styles.

Layout

  • Bootstrap has an advanced grid system with offsets, column wrapping, hiding and reordering of columns.
  • MDL has a more primitive grid that gets the job done most of the time, but doesn’t support advanced features.

Design

  • Bootstrap gives you a passable default design which we have grown tired of by now, but there are plenty of wonderful themes to chose from.
  • MDL looks fresh and features bold colors and animations. It dictates exactly how your web app should look like and gives you a limited opportunity for customization by choosing base and accent colors.

Community

  • Bootstrap has been around for quite some time and has an enormous community, which produces themes, plugins and blog posts.
  • MDL came out only recently but has already become quite popular on GitHub. However it is still in its early days, and most of the time you are on your own.

Interest Over Time

    trends.embed.renderExploreWidget(“TIMESERIES”, {“comparisonItem”:[{“keyword”:”Bootstrap”,”geo”:””,”time”:”2004-01-01 2017-06-12″},{“keyword”:”Materialize”,”geo”:””,”time”:”2004-01-01 2017-06-12″}],”category”:0,”property”:””}, {“exploreQuery”:”date=all&q=Bootstrap,Materialize”,”guestPath”:”https://trends.google.com:443/trends/embed/”});

    < 1 > Grid 

    Grid is the most important part of the framework as it makes the webpage responsive for all devices. 
    • The Bootstrap grid splits the page into 12 equally sized columns. Depending on the viewport width, four different size classes are applied – extra small (from 0 to 768px wide), small (768px to 992px), medium (992px to 1200px), and large (1200px+).
    • MDL has a similar grid system, but it only has three sizes – phone (0 to 480px), tablet (480px to 840px) and desktop (840px+). MDL desktop has 12 columns, tablet has 8 columns and phone has only 4 columns.
    comparison between materialize and bootstrap
    Grid system in Bootstrap and MDL
    comparison between materialize and bootstrap
    Grid changes in Bootstrap 
    comparison between materialize and bootstrap
    Grid changes in MDL

      Docs: Bootstrap Grid | MDL Grid
      Learn Bootstrap’s Grid system

      < 2 > Header Navigation

      Headers in Bootstrap are called Navbars. They begin collapsed in mobile views and become horizontal when there is enough space for them. Inside, you can nest an array of different elements that can be positioned with the help of classes.

      Similarly, MDL header navigations start off collapsed behind a hamburger menu and expand with the growth of the viewport. They too have different stylings and possible positions.

      Header navigation bars in Bootstrap and MDL

      Bootstrap’s collapsible menu
      A hamburger menu in MDL

      Docs: Bootstrap Navbars | MDL Navigation

      < 3 > Footer

      Bootstrap doesn’t actually have separate footer components, while Material Design Lite has two options, a mini and a mega footer. For this example, we’ve translated the default MDL design to Bootstrap, using the grid and a bit of extra CSS.
      Footers in Bootstrap and MDL

      Bootstrap’s menu in mobile’s view

      MDL’s mini footer

       Docs: MDL Footers

      < 4 > Tabs

      Both frameworks use pretty similar syntax to create selectable tabs with different content. A number of links for swapping between the tabs, and an array of divs, selectable by id, for storing the content. They also both require JavaScript to work (Bootstrap requires jQuery as well).
      Tabs in Bootstrap and MDL
      Docs: Bootstrap Tabs | MDL Tabs

      < 5 > Buttons

      Bootstraps default buttons are rectangular and have a bunch of size options. They can have their color changed via CSS or with the modifier classes. Another unique feature to Bootstrap is the split button which is half button, half drop-down.
      MDL offers both rectangular and circular buttons. Google has a guide on how and in which situations to use the different types of buttons. All buttons in MDL support the ripple animation effect.
      Different Buttons in Bootstrap and MDL
      Docs: Bootstrap Buttons | MDL Buttons

      < 6 > Tables

      In Bootstrap responsiveness is achieved using a scrollbar at the bottom of the table. MDL hasn’t added responsiveness to their tables yet. But they added different styles to the tables to make it attractive!  
      Tables in Bootstrap and MDL
      Docs:Bootstrap Tables | MDL Tables 

      < 7 > Forms

      • Bootstrap’s forms support more types of input elements and have classes to make alignments to labels and inputs but it doesn’t have inbuilt library for validation.
      • While MDL has few input elements but the ones with material animation support to make them attractive and fun! they have pattern matching and verification as well. MDL support validation. 
      Forms in Bootstrap and MDL

      Docs: Bootstrap forms | MDL forms

      < 8 > Drop-down Menu

      • Here Bootstrap give you an advantage by making a button split which makes half f the button dropdown menu and half normal button.
      • While MDL gives smooth animation effects compared to Bootstrap’s technique! 
      JavaScript is needed in both the cases.
      Dropdown menu styles in Bootstrap and MDL
      Docs:Bootstraps Menu | MDL Menu

      < 9 > Tool-tips

      Bootstrap gives you the best experience in case of Tool-tips. It gives you the options to show the tool-tip at at top or at bottom or at right or at left or you could just popover it on click!
      MDL has gone with simple approach here. Just two options small and Large design. 
      Tool-tips in Bootstrap and MDL 

      Docs: Bootstrap’s Tool-tips | Bootstrap’s Popover | MDL Tool-tips

        < 10 > Icons
      Bootstrap comes with the Glyphicons icon font, which gives you over 250 pretty icons to choose from. They come bundled with the bootstrap CSS file and no special setup is needed.
      MDL uses a set of icons that Google released some time ago called Material Icons. This is a huge set of nearly 800 icons. They are not bundled with MDL so you need to link it in the HEAD section of your page:

      <link rel=stylesheet href=https://fonts.googleapis.com/icon?family=Material+Icons>

      Icons in Bootstrap and MDL

      Conclusion

      By all means Google’s Materialize Lite is shaping up as a good front-end framework. It makes the webpage look cooler! It is still the early days, but the fact that it is made by Google gives you confidence that it will always conform to the latest material design spec.
      if you don’t find Material Design appealing, there is Bootstrap with its large community. You can even get the best of both worlds by using one of the material themes that are available for it.
      Learn Bootstrap!

      The Case For Giving Free Massages to the Homeless

      Holistic health and pursuit of happiness should be available to all, especially those in poverty and struggling.

      If ever there was an age of anxiety, it is now. We all seem pushed to the limits at work, personal debt is rising, and the housing market is shrinking, while the world around us seems to be going politically and ecologically out of control. This anxiety is a stress factory that spawns mental, physical and behavioral diseases that, as we know, cost a fortune to contain, let alone fix. On its own, work-related stress accounts for $300 billion dollars a year. 

      Many of us are taking an alternative route to deal with this toxic stress. We run to Whole Foods to get the organic kale, we take a yoga or meditation class, get on a massage table, or receive acupuncture or reiki. We can relieve stress by going to a tai chi or a qi gong class, or we do the latest thing and take a “forest bath” by going for a walk in the woods. We see how these things change not only the quality of our lives, but also our health, as measured by blood pressure, stress hormones, immune response and number of doctor visits. 

      So, are these things luxuries for the middle class or are they life-changing and money-saving medical interventions? It may sound comical in an age where the battle lines are being drawn around whether low income people should receive healthcare at all, to suggest that they should be getting acupuncture or a free massage, but why not? Since these interventions are proven to work, they could be used on a routine basis to reduce hospital visits, relapse to drug use, and maybe even recidivism to incarceration.

      Gandhi once said that poverty is violence, and today 40% of New Yorkers live below the poverty line. This violence is generated by homelessness, by the criminalization of poverty, and the soul-crushing trauma of racism. Can holistic interventions be a significant help in stemming this tidal wave of misery?

      We work together at New York Harm Reduction Educators, a social welfare program in East Harlem that does just this. Do tough guys enjoy yoga and acupuncture? Yes they do. Are they interested in following a guided meditation, actively participating in a drum circle, an art group or a walk in the woods? Yes again.  We have seen people locked into a cycle of drugs and incarceration start to turn a corner in their lives. We see those at the margins of our society actually finding room to breathe, room to move, cry, laugh, be human. We see destructive behavior change – this with a very limited budget and space.

      The challenge is to make the things that we know work for us and the ones we love available to our neighbors. Mindfulness, meditation, and yoga have already been used in prisons and jails and rehabs to great effect and at little cost – but what about when people hit the streets? There is absolutely no reason to withdraw the stress-reduction just at the moment that stress increases exponentially.

      At NYHRE we have found a template for continued destressing that can be duplicated and improved upon throughout the city and in fact the country. This is a case where doing the right thing is doing the practical thing – by opening the space that we have found effective in our own lives and making it available for our less fortunate neighbors we can practice compassion and practicality. In an era when poverty is punishment, the pursuit of happiness should be open to everyone.

       

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      Rage of Demons: Session 4

      In the previous session the players had reached the duergar city of Gracklstugh, and had started to explore the Whorlstone Tunnels. Unfortunately their companion who had told them that they could find a way to the surface had turned out to be a mad serial killer who had just wanted to get to the tunnels for his own reasons. But they continued to search the tunnels, having been asked to find out about the Grey Ghosts, a thieves guild of renegade duergar and derro.

      After some exploration they found an alchemist of the Grey Ghosts and some duergar, which they captured. Having also found a shortcut back to the city, they brought the prisoners to the Keepers of the Flame. There they found out that the Keepers suspected the Grey Ghosts of having stolen a red dragon egg from Themberchaud, the dragon of the city, and were told to go back and look for it.

      This time the group collected some of the mushrooms that could grow or shrink people, and used them to explore the narrower tunnels. That way they managed to sneak up on a group of enemies they hadn’t really been looking for: Cultists of Demogorgon, who were doing a ritual that apparently was responsible for the curse that made the giants sprout a second head and go rampant. They killed the cultists and reversed the ritual.

      Finally they found the dragon egg with the leader of the Grey Ghosts near a strange obelisk, guarded by a spectator. The Grey Ghost turned out to be annoying due to his Blink spell. But in the end they killed him and his pet spectator, and got the red dragon egg. They found that the obelisk was a teleport out of the city, so if they had wanted they could have kept the egg and raised a dragon baby. But instead they brought the egg to the dragon (and not his keepers), who promptly destroyed the egg, as he suspected his keepers to use it to replace him.

      So they left the city and traveled north towards Neverlight Grove. They only had two NPC companions left, who were myconids and wanted to go home. And Blingdenstone, the deep gnome city north of Neverlight Grove, was their best hope of finding a way back to the surface.

      [Note that this journal entry is somewhat abbreviated, as there was a lot of dungeon exploring and fighting going on, which I didn’t want to recount in detail.]

      Donald Trump Jr. and Ted Cruz Mock Barack Obama with Bizarre Cookie

      The president’s son called the pastry an early birthday present.

      Donald Trump Jr. Mocks Barack Obama With Giant Cookie

      Donald Trump Jr. took to instagram Sunday alongside Texas Senator Ted Cruz to mock former President Barack Obama and pose with a cookie that featured a picture of the former leader. President Donald Trump’s eldest son said the cookie was an early birthday president. “With friends like these… some good friends decided that while my birthday…

       

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      Simplified : Client_Server – Socket Programming in Java

      Client_Server – Socket Programming in Java

      java socket programming



      Client -server communication

      At a basic level, network-based systems consist of a server , client , and a media for communication. A computer running a program that makes a request for services is called client  machine. A computer running a program that offers requested services from one or more clients is called  server machine.

      Client-Server Architcture


      What are Sockets?

      In Client-Server architecture, you have two processes (running client-Server programs) that want to communicate with each other. For that, they have to establish a communication link between themselves. There is a network available,they just need to connect to this network , for this they use sockets.

      Sockets in client server architecture

      A socket is one endpoint of a two-way communication link between two programs running on the network.

      An endpoint is a combination of an IP address and a port number. Every TCP connection can be uniquely identified by its two endpoints. That way you can have multiple connections between your host and the server.
      The java.net package in the Java platform provides a class, Socket, that implements one side of a two-way connection between your Java program and another program on the network. 

      How do I Open a Socket ?

      If you are programming a client, then you would open a socket like this:
       Socket s;
      s
      = new Socket("Machine name", PortNumber);
      Where Machine name is the machine you are trying to open a connection to, and Port-Number is the port (a number) on which the server you are trying to connect to is running. When selecting a port number, you should note that port numbers between 0 and 1,023 are reserved for privileged users (that is, super user or root). These port numbers are reserved for standard services, such as email, FTP, and HTTP. When selecting a port number for your server, select one that is greater than 1,023!


      It is a good practice to handle exceptions. The above can be written as:

          Socket s;
      try {
      s
      = new Socket("Machine name", PortNumber);
      }
      catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println(e);
      }
      If you are programming a server, then this is how you open a socket:

          ServerSocket ss;
      try {
      ss
      = new ServerSocket(PortNumber);
      }
      catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println(e);
      }
      When implementing a server you also need to create a socket object from the ServerSocket in order to listen for and accept connections from clients.

      Socket clientSocket = null;
      try {
      serviceSocket
      = ss.accept();
      }
      catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println(e);
      }

      How do I create Buffered Reader?

      Java BufferedReader class is used to read the text from a character-based input stream. It can be used to read data line by line by readLine() method. It makes the performance fast. 
          try {
      BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(ss.getInputStream()));

      }
      catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println(e);
      }

      How do I create an output stream?

      On the client side, you can create an output stream to send information to the server socket using the class  of java.io:
          PrintStream output;
      try {
      OutputStream ostream = sock.getOutputStream();
      DataOutputStream dos = new DataOutputStream(ostream);

      }
      catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println(e);
      }
      The class DataOutputStream allows you to write Java primitive data types; many of its methods write a single Java primitive type to the output stream. The method writeBytes is a useful one.

      How do I Close a Socket ?

      On the client side:

          try {
      output
      .close();
      input
      .close();
      s
      .close();
      }
      catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println(e);
      }

      On the server side:

          try {
      output
      .close();
      input
      .close();
      ss
      .close();
      }
      catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println(e);
      }
      Let’s see java code for one-way communication using socket programming:

      Client Side Code:
      import java.net.Socket; 
      import java.io.OutputStream;
      import java.io.DataOutputStream;

      public class SCPTL
      {
      public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception
      {
      Socket sock = new Socket("localhost", 5000);
      String message1 = "Learn-Intern-Certify from SCPTL";

      OutputStream ostream = sock.getOutputStream();
      DataOutputStream dos = new DataOutputStream(ostream);
      dos.writeBytes(message1);
      dos.close();
      ostream.close();
      sock.close();
      }
      }
      Server Side Code:
      import java.net.ServerSocket;            
      import java.net.Socket;
      import java.io.*;

      public class SERVER
      {
      public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception
      {
      ServerSocket sersock = new ServerSocket(5000);
      System.out.println("server is ready"); // message to know the server is running

      Socket sock = sersock.accept();

      BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(sock.getInputStream()));

      String message2 = br.readLine();
      System.out.println(message2);
      sock.close(); sersock.close();
      }
      }

      Output:

      Client:

      Client side output
      Server:

      Server side output

      Want to learn more about java?

      Quitting early

      I still play a lot of Magic Duels, still nearly exclusively against the AI. It is in the nature of that game that there is a certain randomness which is independent of your skill in building decks or playing the game. Sometimes you don’t draw enough land, or draw the wrong color of land, and sometimes you draw too many lands and no spells to cast. Sometimes you draw exactly the right mana and spells of the right cost to play with that mana and start the game perfectly. The same is true for your AI opponent. Thus sometimes you get in a situation where your AI opponent had a perfect hand and is playing creature after creature, while either don’t have the mana or the spells to do anything much to stop him. After a few turns you already know that you will lose. Knowing that the AI opponent won’t be offended, I frequently quit in situations like that.

      One of the reasons why I don’t like playing Magic Duels in PvP mode is that some people think that this behavior is also okay if you play against a human opponent. And I disagree with that. Imagine a sports event where one team decides to give up at half time and not to play the second half of the game, because the first half makes it near certain that they lost anyway. That would be completely unacceptable behavior is sports. Because winning is not the only thing a match is about, it is also about playing. In Magic a human opponent who has set up a great attack doesn’t just want to get a quick and easy win by the other guy conceding, he wants to play out the game until that win. Quitting early is impolite towards that other guy, provided that he isn’t an AI who doesn’t really mind.

      A lot of games these days have no penalties at all for quitting. To some extent that is due to the problem that half of all players lose in a PvP game, so games have tried to hide that fact by rewarding the loser a bit and the winner a bit more. And you don’t want a disconnect being interpreted by the game as toxic player behavior and punishing that player by a lot. However that does end up in a situation where quitting early in a game which you aren’t clearly winning might actually be the best strategy. Because games are frequently set up in a way where you can immediately start the next game, and staying until the end of a game when the rewards for losing slowly and quitting early are the same is a waste of time you could have spent winning the next game.

      I remember a lot of people in the early days of internet gaming enthusing about the internet bringing people from all over the world together. But somehow that ended up with dehumanizing our human opponents: Many people don’t think of their human opponents as real people any more, but consider them to be more or less equal to an AI opponent. People who would never cheat in a board game with friends around a table do cheat in multiplayer video games. They don’t even consider whether their opponent might quite like to play a game until the actual win condition, but quit early in order to earn rewards in the next game faster. And game design frequently encourages that sort of behavior. Players end up being content in a game for which the devs were too lazy to program an AI. And somehow between all these developments we lost a bit of humanity.

      First impressions Zortrax M200 Plus 3D Printer

      I am going to post a full review with comparison of things I printed later, but I already wanted to write about my first impressions with my new 3D printer. Unboxing the printer, installing, calibration, and starting to print took me about 1 hour, which is about a “plug & play” as it gets in 3D printing. Most of the printer is pre-assembled, but you need to assemble the cable to the print head and the cable to the heated bed yourself, as well as the spool holder and the guide tube from the spool to the print head. Then you need to install the latest firmware via an USB key, and calibrate the bed to be even. That is done with the help of 3 screws, with the printer telling you which one to turn by how much. Apart from a ridiculous degree of precision in the instructions (“turn the screw by 86.02°”), that went smoothly.

      The printer comes with one model for a test print on the provided USB key. In a disappointing display of lack of professionalism Zortrax managed to forget to include supports in that test print model, which results in it being actually impossible to print. Of course I didn’t know that and went back to the shop to ask why after installation the test print wasn’t working, and it was just by chance that there was a technician present who was aware of that issue and told me not to worry and print something else instead.

      Both the firmware and the Z-Suite 3D printing software can only be downloaded after entering the serial number of the printer, but then the software worked on the first try. So I printed a 3D Benchy as test print, and it came out very nice. Much better detail on the fine parts, and smoother walls. However after printing some other models I have to say that not everything is perfect, and some prints that I succeeded with on the old printer failed to print on the new one; right now it is hard to say how much of that is due to the change in material from PLA to ABS, how much is related to finding the best settings, and how much is due to the printer.

      What I really disliked about my old XYZ printer was that he would only take spools of PLA from the company that made the printer, with an RFID chip in the spool making sure you didn’t use other material. That system also resulted in the spool physically still having several meters of material on it at the end, while the RFID chip claimed the spool was empty and refused to use it any more. The new Zortrax printer is better in that respect, you can print with spools from any supplier. However the software has the optimum parameters for the Zortrax spools, while for external materials you need to find the best settings yourself. That curiously means that if you want to print the Zortrax ABS at a different temperature for some reason, you need to unload it, and reload it as external material, claiming it was ABS from a different supplier.

      I notice a real change printing in ABS rather than in PLA. I will need to explore that further, and for example try to print PLA on the new printer. The previous model Zortrax M200 was famous for not doing PLA well, but the M200 Plus has an additional cooling fan on the print head and is supposed to have solved that problem. From a scientific point of view, PLA is more crystalline, which makes it more shiny, but also more brittle. ABS is more matte, more flexible, and sturdier. Lego bricks are made from ABS, and those usually don’t break easily. However when printed with a 3D printer, the layers create a preferred axis of breakage, so if I would print a Lego brick it would be less sturdy than the original. And it would be less glossy and smooth on the surface. However ABS, unlike PLA, is soluble in acetone, so there are methods of making ABS printed parts smooth and glossy by exposing them to acetone vapors. I haven’t tried that yet. The disadvantage I noticed with ABS is that you need to print it at higher temperature to make it stick to the previous layer, and then there is a bit of possible “sagging”, making the printed part a bit broader than the model. I had some prints of figurines with supports where the side of the support stuck to the side of the model, and then left a mark when I removed it. That can probably be fixed by the settings of the software making the supports.

      Talking of supports, I still have the same problem with the supports generated by the Z-Suite software than I had with the supports generated by the XYZWare software: The supports are far too massive for small 28mm scale figurines. You can’t use them to print a support for something which is only a millimeter or two thick, like a weapon or arm of a miniature. They seem to be designed for large objects. Having said that, the Z-Suite software has at least some degree of manual editing of support structures, so that is good. Just for my main application I’ll keep using Meshmixer for building support structures for small figurines.

      Finally there is one point where the new Zortrax printer is far worse than the old XYZ printer: The XYZ printer automatically shut down the light after a few minutes, and shut down the fans when the print head was cold. Thus I could start a print in the morning and go to work, or in the evening and go to bed, and when I came back the XYZ printer was on standby. The Zortrax printer doesn’t have that, when you come back hours later the light is still on (presumably to allow the internal camera to work) and the fans are still blowing, although the machine is cold. That adds unnecessary wear and tear to the fans, and also consumes more electricity when not in use. I think I will have to buy an electronic time switch or something.

      Overall I am happy with the new printer, and I’ll show some photos of the improved results in a future post. But there remains a lot of fiddling and optimizing to be done, and the new printer didn’t miraculously and immediately solve all my printing problems. But then that would have been boring anyway! 🙂 

      The return of third class travel

      When railway travel was new in the 19th century, carriages came in three claases, 1st for the rich, 2nd for the middle class, and 3rd for the working class. That sort of class system went out of fashion in the 1950’s, and since then most railways only have 2 classes. So do many airplanes, having business and economy as choices, with “1st class” only available on a few long-haul flights.

      I am currently sitting in a train, 1st class carriage, from Brussels to Paris. And I’m reading an announcement that from December on this high-speed railway will have economy, comfort, and prestige instead of 1st and 2nd class. Which of course means that if you travel economy, you are effectively travelling in 3rd class, there being two better options on offer. That isn’t an outlier, airlines have started to introduce “economy plus” between economy and business, also turning economy into 3rd class. We aren’t quite back to wooden benches yet, but everybody knows how comfort has diminished in economy class over the last decade. Frequent travellers have many a horror story to tell.

      Somehow I feel there is a vicious circle involved here. As the name “business” suggests, the target customer for a business seat is a traveller whose ticket has been bought by his company. But many companies have become less generous over the years, forcing their employees to travel economy, at least on shorter voyages. So the idea of railroads and airlines is to get companies to at least pay for an intermediate option. But of course the response of companies is going to be to never pay for business class again, the economy plus option being deemed sufficient.

      Of course a 3 class system is also a symptom of a less egalitarian, more unequal society. And as a student of history and economy I know that unequal societies have a strong tendency to go horribly wrong. So 3rd class isn’t something I think is a good idea.

      ZTE confirms Axon 7 will be updated to Android 8.0 Oreo

      • ZTE has confirmed that Android 8.0 Oreo will come to the Axon 7
      • The announcement came via a forum post from a ZTE spokesperson
      • According to the statement, the update is “just around the corner”

      If you’re still feeling glum about the sad revelation that the Axon 7 has been axed from ZTE’s production slate, then hopefully today’s news direct from the Chinese company’s mouth will help soften the blow.

      In a surprising turn, ZTE has confirmed that its beloved mid-range phone will be updated to Android 8.0 Oreo in the near future. In a post on the unofficial ZTE community forums, Z-Union, a ZTE spokesperson said:

      “We are announcing now that we are already developing Android 8 for the Axon 7, your positive feedback has been inspiring us a lot and made us very happy and because of this we try to get it customer ready as soon as possible for the best customers in the world, and I ask for your understanding because we still need some time to perfect it.”

      While there’s no confirmed timeframe – the thread is titled “Android 8 is just around the corner” – the news that the Axon 7 will enjoy all of the myriad benefits of Oreo is enough reason for celebration.

      Editor’s Pick

      The Axon 7 originally launched in mid-2016 rocking Android Marshmallow out of the box with ZTE’s MiFavor UI over the top. The flagship killer was later upgraded to Android Nougat, which some may have assumed would be the end of the line for major OS updates.

      As the folks over at Phandroid note, the confirmation comes via a European forum, although it seems likely that the Oreo update will eventually roll out to other regions, including the US.

      In addition, it’s worth remembering that Axon M users are still waiting on Google’s latest update to arrive and ZTE will no doubt prioritize its unique dual-screen phone. It’s also unclear whether or not ZTE will stop at 8.0 or continue on to version 8.1 that recently rolled out for the Pixel 2 and Pixel 2 XL.

      Although it’s not quite the Axon 8 announcement some fans are hoping for, today’s news could mark a nice final hurrah for a phone that remains a firm favorite here at Android Authority.

      Google+ – Posts, Circles, Sparks & Hangouts !!!

      Google+ (Google Plus) is an interest-based social networking site owned by Google Inc. Launched in 2011, this platform brings together people with similar interest. Such group of people can build a community and share their ideas through photos and posts.

      Google+ is unique in way in that it allows more transparency in what one shares and with whom it is shared. The Google+ menu bar is displayed on other Google services when one logs in the google account.

      Some of the most prominent features of Google+ are as follows −

      • Posts where one can update the status.
      • Circles are used to share information with different groups.
      • Sparks offer videos that users might like.
      • Hangouts & Huddles are for video chat with a friend or a group of friends.

      Uploading a Post:

      We can upload posts on our Google+ profile easily and share it with people in our communities/circles or others who we want to share it with. When we share our post, it is visible on the receiver’s news feed. The post also appears on our profile page and people can comment, like, or share the post. We can also tag people to our post using “+ and their name.

      Let’s go step by step and learn how we can upload a post in Google+.

      Step 1 − Open your Google+ account.

      Step 2 − On the profile page, at right bottom corner click on write icon to write new post.

      Step 3 − Write the post. We can also copy paste the content.

      Step 4 − Tag anyone if desired. Add the location if needed.

      Step 5 − Select whether the post should be public or private.

      Step 6 − Once done, click the ‘Post’ option. The post appears on our page as well as on the profile page of the persons tagged to the post.

      Google Plus – Circles

      Google Circles can be used to group together different people. It may different members of the family, colleagues, or a group of people having similar interest. When we add people to a particular circle, they receive a notification of being added to the circle. Members of a circle can view the posts and photos in the circle. We can also add or remove people from circles at any time. Circles help to share the right information with the right people.
      For example, it is a great way to share jokes with ‘friends’ circle, while sharing business matters with ‘work’ circle. People added to circles can also be available on our Google Hangout. By default people and pages added to circles are publicly visible. However, we can change the privacy options from settings. 

      How to Create a Circle?

      Step 1 − Open Google+ account.

      Step 2 − Click ‘People’ from the navigation menu.

      Step 3 − Click the ‘Following’ tab as shown in following screenshot.

      Step 4 − Scroll down and click New Circle as seen in the above screenshot.

      Step 5 − Name the circle and once done, click ‘Create’.

      Adding People to Circles

      Step 1 − Open the profile of the person who is to be added to the circle.

      Step 2 − Click the circle that the person is to be added to.

      Step 3 − Click Done.

      Removing People From Circles

      Step 1 − Open the profile of the person to be removed from the circle.

      Step 2 − Click the circle that the person is in and from the menu uncheck the circle.

      Step 3 − Click Done.

      Google Plus – Hangouts

      Google Hangouts is a communication platform developed by Google which includes instant messaging, video chat, SMS and VOIP features. It replaces three messaging products that Google had implemented concurrently within its services, including Google Talk, Google+ Messenger (formerly: Huddle), and Hangouts, a video chat system present within Google+. Google has also stated that Hangouts is designed to be “the future” of its telephony product, Google Voice, and integrated some of the capabilities of Google Voice into Hangouts. Users can be messaged by their Google+ accounts.

      This platform also offers “hangouts on Air” option using which we can broadcast live video chatting and discussions to the world through your Google+. These video chats and discussion is accessible to all. It can be edited and a copy of the broadcast can be shared though YouTube channel.

      To broadcast our Hangouts on Air, all we need is −

      YouTube channel − Make sure to have a YouTube account. Create an account, if there isn’t one.

      Google+ profile − Make sure the Google+ page is connected to YouTube account. Nowadays they are automatically connected, however existing users should connect it to Google+ page.

      Creating a Hangout

      Step 1 − Open Google+ page.

      Step 2 − Search for Hangouts in the drop-down menu located on the left side of the page.

      Step 3 − Click “+ New Hangout”. Check and add people to be added to Hangouts.

      Step 4 : Choose the format for Hangouts, i.e. either video or text hangout. We can also alter text chat to video chat any time by clicking the camera button that appears on the top of the chat window.

      We can share emoticons or pictures through Hangouts. We can also add filters to the pictures and videos. When we are done chatting, click the Close (x) button.

      Google Plus – Events

      Google+ Events page helps in organizing an upcoming event or occasion. It helps anyone using Gmail to add certain events in their calendars. All information about the particular event can be populated with just one click.

      The event automatically gets added to Google calendar of those who are invited and are already in the circles. We can invite as many people or even the entire circle/community at the same time. Click ‘+invite name, circles’ and select the privacy as ‘public’. By doing so, anyone can find the event and access the details.

      Events automatically get synchronized with guests’ calendars. Everyone attending can share the photos/videos to the shared album. Guests can even inform whether they are going to attend the event or not. If there is a change in the date of the event, guests will be notified by email. They will receive a notification for the change in place, date, time, etc.

      Creating a Google+ Event

      Step 1 − Open Google+ account.

      Step 2 − Click the ‘Events’ tab.

      Step 3 − Click ‘Create event’.


      Step 4 − Fill all the information about the event such as ‘Title’, ‘start/end date’, ‘location’, ‘description’.

      Step 5 − Upload the cover picture. Make sure the cover picture depicts the event.

      Step 6 − Check/uncheck the following options.

      • Guests can invite other people.
      • Guests can add photos.
      • Hide guests list.

      Step 7 − Add more description via ‘Advanced’ tab.

      Step 8 − Invite people who we want to come to the event by clicking the green ‘invite’ button.

      Step 9 − Publish the event.

      Google Sparks:



      Google+ SPARKS is a feature you can use to get all the info about your interests (if you can’t see it by clicking the link, here is a screenshot).
      You can click on any of the images (categories) you want, and add it to your interests. I chose to type in my interests instead, and keep up with stuff I am interested in. Creating a spark “Movies” just seems like too much.
      Once you chose your interests, you will be able to see a link to each of them under your profile picture. Any time you want to see what is going on in the world, that is related to your interest, click on it and you will get a page filled with news, posts, information.
      For example, I can stay up to date with anything related to “blogging”,”Programming” or which ever interest I add, as you can see it in my list of Sparks.

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